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cheap Canada Goose Clusters of galaxies as seen by XMM Newton. Image credit: ESA. Click to enlarge cheap Canada Goose

canada goose clearance sale Galaxy clusters are the largest objects in the Universe. Each cluster can contain hundreds or even thousands of galaxies Canada Goose Online held together by gravity. These clusters are filled with hot gas, emitting a tremendous amount of X ray radiation. ESA XMM Newton observatory recently watched two galaxy clusters enabling astronomers to learn that these clusters have higher quantities of Type 1a buy canada goose jacket supernovae exploding white dwarf Canada Goose online stars canada goose uk shop than our own galaxy. canada goose clearance sale

canada goose black friday sale Deep observations of two X ray bright clusters of galaxies Canada Goose Outlet with ESA XMM Newton satellite allowed buy canada goose jacket cheap a group of international astronomers to measure their chemical composition with an unprecedented accuracy. Knowing the chemical composition of galaxy clusters is of crucial importance to understanding the origin of chemical elements in the Universe. canada goose black friday sale

canada goose clearance Clusters, or conglomerates, of galaxies are the largest objects in the Universe. By looking at them through Canada Goose Parka optical telescopes it is possible to see canada goose coats hundreds or even thousands of galaxies occupying a volume a few million light years across. However, such telescopes only reveal the tip of the iceberg. In fact most of the uk canada goose outlet atoms in galaxy clusters are in the form of hot gas emitting X ray radiation, with the mass of the hot gas five times larger than the mass in the canada goose black friday sale cluster galaxies themselves. canada goose clearance

canada goose Most of the cheap canada goose uk chemical elements produced in the stars of galaxy clusters canada goose clearance expelled into the surrounding space by supernova explosions and by stellar winds become part of the hot Canada Goose sale X ray emitting gas. Astronomers divide supernovae into two basic types: collapse Canada Goose Jackets and Ia supernovae. The collapse supernovae originate when a star at the end of its life collapses into a neutron star or a black cheap Canada Goose hole. These supernovae produce lots of oxygen, neon and magnesium. The Type Ia supernovae explode when a white dwarf star consuming matter from a companion star becomes too massive and completely disintegrates. This type produces lots of iron and nickel. canada goose

canada goose coats on sale Respectively in November 2002 and August 2003, and for one and a half day each time, XMM Newton made deep observations of the two galaxy clusters called 159 03 and canada goose store 0335 096 Thanks to these data the astronomers could determine the abundances of nine chemical canadian goose jacket elements in the clusters??bf? a gas containing charged particles canada goose clearance sale such as ions and electrons. canada goose coats on sale

buy canada goose jacket These elements include oxygen, iron, canada goose neon, magnesium, silicon, argon, calcium, nickel, and detected uk canada goose for the first time ever in a galaxy cluster chromium. buy canada goose jacket

buy canada goose jacket cheap number is in between the value found for our own Galaxy (where Type Ia supernovae represent about 13 percent of the supernovae and the current frequency of supernovae events as determined by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search project (according to which about 42 percent of all observed supernovae are Type Ia), he continued. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Canada Goose Jackets The astronomers also found that all supernova models predict much less calcium than what is observed in clusters and canada goose uk outlet that the observed nickel abundance cannot be reproduced canada goose factory sale by these canada goose canadagooseoutletjackets coats on sale models. These discrepancies indicate that that the details of supernova enrichment is not yet clearly understood. Since clusters of galaxies are believed to be fair samples of the Universe, their X ray spectroscopy can help to improve the supernova models. Canada Goose Jackets

canada goose coats The spatial distribution of elements across a cluster also holds information about the history of clusters themselves. The distribution of elements in 2A 0335 096 indicates Canada Goose Coats On Sale an ongoing merger. The distribution of oxygen and iron across Sersic 159 03 indicates that while most of the enrichment by the core collapse supernovae canada goose uk black friday happened long time ago, Type Ia supernovae still continue to enrich the hot gas by heavy elements especially in the core of the cluster canada Canada Goose Jackets Outlet goose coats.

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