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Canada Goose online The Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew English lexicon (the go to single volume dictionary of ancient Hebrew) defines «raqia» as the following: «extended surface, (solid) expanse (as if beaten out);.2.) the vault of the heaven, or regarded by the Hebrews as solid, and supporting above it.» uk canada goose (pg 956)

John Walton, uk canada goose outlet a conservative Old Testament Scholar known for his work on Genesis says in his NIV Application Commentary, «Despite the NIV attempt to mitigate the meaning canada goose factory sale of this word [raqia] through an ambiguous translation such as «expanse» and the attempt of others to make it scientifically precise through the translation «atmosphere», P. Seely has amply demonstrated that the raqia, structurally speaking, was perceived by the Israelites as a solid dome.» Walton then goes on to justify this claim by saying that virtually all of the surrounding Canada Goose sale cultures also believed that the sky was solid in some fashion, and that waters were held above it. Walton also mentions the other uses canada goose black friday sale of raqia in the Old Testament (there are 17 of them), and says that the ones in Ezekiel ch 1 and 10 clearly outlet refer to a Canada Goose Outlet solid platform. The ones in the Psalms and Daniel don refer to function as Canada Goose online much as they refer to the raqia as the place of the stars and of the waters. All of this is canadian goose jacket consistent with the raqia being understood as a solid structure or «dome» against which things can be pinned, such as the stars, and above which things can be stored, such as buy canada goose jacket water and snow.

canada goose black friday sale Gordon Wenham, a more moderate Old Testament scholar, in his Word Biblical Commentary, says buy canada goose jacket cheap on page 20 that the word «raqia» is etymologically derived from the words «stamp, spread», and is sometimes used to describe metal work, such as «to spread by hammering». My Hebrew professor, Michael Wise, who is fairly well known in Old Testament work, contended that the common sense way most people would have understood the raqia is as a shiny metal dome. canada goose coats This comports well with Wenham suggestion. This cosmology is present in Genesis as well. The issue with translation is that it not easy to take the one word and put it into modern English in a way that easily understandable. It would take many words to give the Hebrew understanding of the dome, and most translators want to stay away from canada goose uk outlet that sort of exposition on the words they are translating. Some translations might put in a longer footnote, but in the text itself the translators struggle with the right thing to do, which is why you see variations on the translation of Nevertheless, all of the scholars with which I am familiar (and I listed scholars along the spectrum from conservative christian to secular atheist), canada goose coats on sale in addition to the Hebrew lexicon agree that the word refers to something solid that sits above the earth. Just as all people in canada goose uk black friday the ancient Near East. The ancient cheap Canada Goose peoples, including those in the bible, believed that the circular earth (two dimensional) and circumferential sea were enclosed by a firm dome overhead.

canada goose deals (1) NRSV translates raqia as «dome.»

(2) ESV translates raqia as «vault»

buy canada goose jacket From an ancient phenomenological point of view, the «dome» appeared to be a solid and unmovable structure, similar to canada goose clearance sale an inverted bowl.

canadian goose jacket The root of the noun raqa means to flatten, stamp down, spread out and hammer out. NIV translates raqia as «expanse).

buy canada goose jacket cheap Early translators of Scripture conserved the original meaning of raqia.

cheap Canada Goose The Septuagint renders the word as stereoma, canada goose clearance which means vault of the heaven. The noun is related to the adjective stereos, a common term for firm, hard and solid.

canada goose clearance sale The Vulgate translates raqia as firmamentum. The word is related to the adjective firmus, from which derives the English word firm.

canada goose store This is just one example of where the Hebrew Bible reveals an ancient cosmology, and it clearly at odds with modern science.

Canada Goose sale Why do you think Genesis is a journalistic account of origins when the Bible clearly contains ancient cosmology? In other word, information not consistent with https://www.canadagooseoutlet4sale.com what we know today.

canada goose When a Christian institution demands adherence to a particular doctrine, such as inerrancy, it Canada Goose Jackets undermines proper scholarship. It arrests people from coming to different conclusions.

canada goose coats on sale I suspect a lot of scholars at evangelical schools, for example, will either ignore certain issues or not voice certain views. That because cheap canada goose uk these schools are largely apologetic, not academic, and your job is connected to conformity.

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canada goose clearance I was on FT french training for 3 Canada Goose Online months last year. There were people in my class that had already been canada goose uk shop in training for 6 9 months when I joined them. Everyone in the class was a manager canada goose or director, making six figure salaries while they were on french training. We have all stayed in contact, and so far I the only person of the 9 students who «graduated» from the FT language program last December who has managed to obtain a C level in Oral Interaction. The rest all failed the oral test and half of them have since returned canada goose store to FT training.

Canada Goose Outlet However, what took the cake was our instructor telling us that there was a senior executive who had been taking FT training for the last year, and was going to be on FT training until he retired a year from then. His «training» consisted of him sitting in a room by himself watching English movies with french sub titles turned on. He was refusing any other kind of training and had no intention of actually learning french. The school was happy to continue cashing the GOC Canada Goose Parka cheques to «train» this guy, but some of the language instructors were disgusted by what was going on.

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